The Nuova Cronica or New Chronicles is a 14th-century history of Florence created in a year-by-year linear format and written by the Italian banker and official Giovanni Villani c.
The idea came to him after attending the first Jubilee in the city of Romeinwhere he realized that Rome's many historical achievements were well-known, and he desired to lay out a history of the origins of his own city of Florence.
He also described several disasters such as famines, floods, fires, and the pandemic of the Black Death inwhich would take his own life. Giovanni Villani's Cronica is divided into twelve books; the first six deal with the largely legendary history of Florence, starting at conventionally Biblical times to Bartlett and Green [ who?
In his Cronica, Villani writes that the Guelph defeat by the Ghibellines at Montaperti in was a major setback to the historical progress of the Republic of Florence. Olson states are conservative numbers in regards to subsequent historians writing of the battle's casualties. Villani describes the rebuilding of Florence after the rebellion of one Giano della Bella; he notes that by conditions were once again in a "tranquil state". Villani relates that for the construction of the church, it was required of the Commune of Florence that a subsidy of four denari on each libra be paid out of the city treasury in addition to a head-tax of two soldi for each adult male.
According to Villani, inthe commune and people of Florence laid the foundation for the Palazzo Vecchioto replace the town hall that was located in a house behind the church of San Brocolo. Villani boasts of Florence's pristine architecture in its monasteries and churches, as well as its ornate houses and beautiful palaces. While holding the signoria of Florence, Robert of Naples — had the eastern part of the Bargello in Florence constructed, where he had his vicar the Count of Battifolle reside.
There was a famine in which not only devastated Florence, but caused the people of PerugiaSienaLuccaand Pistoia to turn away any beggars who approached their towns because they could not provide them with food. In spite of all the government did, the agitation of the people at the market of Or San Michele was so great that it was necessary to protect the officials by means of guards fitted out with ax and block to punish rioters on the spot with the loss of hands or feet.
Villani states that the commune of Florence spent more than 60, gold florins to mitigate this effects of this disaster. Villani also describes in vivid detail the effects of another widespread famine in Tuscany during the yearwhich killed an estimated 4, people in Florence a year before the Bubonic Plague. On June 23,a fire broke out toward the left bank of the Ponte Vecchio bridge, destroying all twenty shops located on the bridge.
Villani states that by noon on Thursday, November 4,a flood along the Arno River spread across the entire plain of San Salvi. Villani describes how the plague of Black Death in was much more widespread amongst the inhabitants of PistoiaPratoBolognaRomagnaAvignon and the whole of France than it was in Florence and Tuscany. And of eight Genoese galleys which had gone to the Black Sea only four returned, full of infected sailors, who were smitten one after the other on the return journey.
And all who arrived at Genoa died, and they corrupted the air to such an extent that whoever came near the bodies died shortly after. And it was a disease in which there appeared certain swellings in the groin and under the armpit, and the victims spat blood, and in three days they were dead. And the priest who confessed the sick and those who nursed them so generally caught the infection that the victims were abandoned and deprived of confession, sacrament, medicine, and nursing.
And many lands and cities were made desolate. And this plague lasted till.
Epatiti Acute a Croniche
Villani was unable to complete this last sentence, since he himself died of the plague while writing the Cronica. Giovanni Villani recorded many statistics associated with the city of Florence. This included—but certainly wasn't limited to—figures such as 80 banks located in the city, bakeries, 80 members in an association of city judges with notaries, 60 some physicians and surgical doctors, and some shops and dealers of spices.
Villani states that the whole population of Florence—men, women, and children—in reference to the years towas estimated to be 90, due to the amount of bread needed daily. Besides population statistics, Villani also offered statistics on education. He wrote that boys and girls learning to read numbered 8, to 10, each year. Villani also offered statistics on religious and health facilities.
The total number of churches in Florence and its suburbs was —including 57 parishesfive abbeys with two priors and 80 monks each, 24 nunneries with some women, 10 orders of friarsand 30 hospitals with over 1, beds to offer to the sick and dying. Besides religious facilities, Villani also provided information on commerce and trade. He states that there were about workshops overseen by the Arte della Lana guild of wool merchants and entrepreneurs in the woolen industry of Florence.
The guild of the Arte di Calimala importers, refinishers, and sellers of French and Transalpine cloth annually imported 10, pieces of cloth worthgold florins; these were sold on the streets of Florence, while a large but unknown amount was exported back out of Florence.
Villani states that there were only 75 full-dress knights in his day and not knights as in the previous government of Florence, because the popular second government denied the magnates much of their authority and status, "hence few persons were knighted. The Nuova Cronica by Villani stands as a milestone achievement in the history of European chronicles.Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat.
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Health and Economic Costs of Chronic Diseases
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Brynn Baker April 29, Brianna Aguayo April 28, Triana Devaux April 23, Coughing is a routine bodily function, but when it lasts for an extended time, it can get in the way of everyday life and be worrying.
A chronic cough can be wet and produce phlegm or dry and tickle the throat. A chronic cough is when a cough lasts longer than 8 weeks in adults or 4 weeks in children.
Common causes include asthmaallergies, gastroesophageal reflux disease GERDor bronchitis. Less commonly, it can be a sign of a more severe condition, such as a heart cough or lung disease.
In this article, we take a close look at the causes and symptoms of a chronic cough, ways to treat it, and when to see a doctor. A variety of factors can cause a chronic cough. Sometimes, more than one factor may be responsible. A cough is typically the result of something that is irritating the airways causing the muscles in the chest and stomach to contract.
The irritation also causes the glottis that covers the airways to open quickly, causing air to rush out. The result is a cough. A dry cough is a non-productive one, meaning the cough does not produce mucus. People who smoke cigarettes and those who take ACE inhibitors tend to have a dry cough.
A wet cough is one that produces mucus or sputum. This is the case when, for example, a person has postnasal drip or cystic fibrosis. A chronic cough can become a medical emergency. If a person experiences the following symptoms along with a chronic cough they should seek emergency treatment:.
Other symptoms that may mean a person needs to see their doctor include:. To make a diagnosis, a doctor will begin by asking the person when their symptom first appeared, what makes the symptoms better, and what makes them worse. Each of these tests, as well as a variety of other tests, can help a doctor identify the underlying causes of a chronic cough.
Treatments for a chronic cough depend upon the underlying cause. If a doctor cannot determine the exact cause straight away, they might decide to treat the most common contributing factors for a chronic cough. Postnasal drip is a common cause, so a doctor may recommend the person takes decongestants or antihistamines.
These medications can help to dry up secretions and reduce inflammation that can lead to postnasal drip. Decongestant or nasal steroid sprays may also help. Other treatments may be more specific to a particular underlying medical condition.Hence, our mission is simple. To help people look great keeping track of their most precious possession: their time. After all, this is where we spent countless childhood summers, living in Sanary Sur Mer, a small village on the coast of Provence. Like many before us, we fell in love with its rocky coastline, the smell of ancient pine trees Back to Top.
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Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of cornichein the meaning defined above History and Etymology for corniche borrowed from French, short for route de corniche, route en corniche "cornice road" — more at cornice Keep scrolling for more Learn More about corniche Share corniche Post the Definition of corniche to Facebook Share the Definition of corniche on Twitter Time Traveler for corniche. See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near corniche corni cornice cornice brake corniche cornichon cornicle corniculate.
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What causes a chronic cough?
Save Word. Log In. Definition of corniche. First Known Use of cornichein the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for corniche borrowed from French, short for route de corniche, route en corniche "cornice road" — more at cornice.A Milano esperti riuniti per parlare di Malattie infimmatorie croniche intestinali
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